Test and Item Bias studies typically begin with
a statistical process called Differential Item Functioning (DIF).
DIF identifies items that may exhibit different item or test properties
by pre-defined group membership.
Since the presence of different properties does
not necessarily imply bias, it is also important to have a group
of SMEs review the results of the DIF analysis.
Importantly, SMT also employs careful strategies
during job analyses and item-writing to minimize bias prior to test